Originally published as 9 Harv. For educational use only. The printed edition remains canonical.
Rights and duties are correlative. Every right or duty involves a bond of obligation.
Every legal system is made up of both rights and duties and for the smooth working of every country both rights and duty are essential, in the same light in our India also there are, fundamental rights and fundamental duties enumerated in the constitution.
The fundamental duties are therefore intended to serve as a constant reminder to every citizen that while constitution specifically conferred on them certain fundamental rights. It is also required from citizens to observe certain basic norms of democratic conduct and democratic behaviour.
The inspiration for the Part IV A is the constitution of USSR, this constitution directs that law, maintenance or labour discipline and honesty in the performance of public duties and to respect the rules of the socialist community.
Such fundamental duties are not seen in the constitution of the U. In all these countries the citizens are imbibed with a high sense of patriotism as a result of education, and training in the elementary duties and obligations of citizenship in contrast to this, it is generally argued that in India people lay emphasis, only on rights and it is often criticized that the Indians know only rights but not duties.
Generally, they are lazy and selfish. They do not work hard and they do not have national spirit which other citizens have and so fundamental duties are incorporated in the constitution in Article A lays down ten duties, which shall be followed by every citizen of India.
They are as follows: Out of above ten duties only, clauses ag and i have been put in force in several statutes, and to make the people to abide them compulsory. The fundamental duties are fine sentiments. They are not capable of being legally enforceable. Only ag and i shall be enforceable by law and Parliament by law, will provide penalties to be imposed for failure to fulfil those duties and obligations.
But this is not also true in full sensen because the controversy of implementation of duty arises in famous case of Bijoe Emmanual v. State of Kerala 3 SCC Popularly known as National Anthem case In this case a question arose that whether a citizen can refuse to stand and sing National Anthem which is duty to respect National Anthem on grounds of personal faith and religion?
In this case, the Director of Public Instructions, Kerala issued a circular, according to which the students of all the schools should sing National Anthem at their school because it is your fundamental duty to respect our National Flag and Anthem.
The Head Mistress of the school asked them to give in writing that they will respect the National Anthem, and instructed them until such assurance was not received; she shall not allow them to the classes. The children refused to do so.
As a result, the school management expelled those three children contending that they did not sing National Anthem and so they had acted against their fundamental duties.
The Kerala High Court dismissed the writ petition and upheld the expulsion. The appellant appealed to the Supreme Court.[Editor's Note: This article was undated, so I used the first web crawl of the Wayback Machine of December 3, to date it. Not all of the Israeli citizens playing the role of US legislators and high government officials mentioned in this article are still in office today (Sept.
), but most are. THE SPIKE.
It was late-afternoon. Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open.
We were too tired to talk much.
Civics Test. On January 15, Arizona passed a law requiring high school students to pass a test on civics, the same requirement immigrants must fulfill before they can become proud U.S. citizens. This section of the tranceformingnlp.com web site introduces some of the human rights issues surrounding Haiti and how the US have supported undemocratic regimes that have violated many rights.
Links to other sources are also provided. 🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes.
Journal of Law & Politics; The Second Amendment and the Historiography of the Bill of Rights, by David T. Hardy.