The origins of the Ottoman dynasty lie in northwestern Anatolia, though it is difficult to say why they suddenly emerged as such a powerful force. One theory proposes that it was because they were strategically well placed to attack the Christian Byzantine Empire, and therefore attracted Muslim fighters who wished to wage holy war against Christianity. They first drove the Byzantines from Anatolia — which they achieved by — and in occupied Gallipoli, their first base in Europe, and the one from which they launched their drive into southeastern Europe. In there occurred the decisive battle of Kosovo.
Mehmed allowed the Orthodox Church to maintain its autonomy and land in exchange for accepting Ottoman authority. The Empire prospered under the rule of a line of committed and effective Sultans.
It also flourished economically due to its control of the major overland trade routes between Europe and Asia. After this Ottoman expansion, a competition started between the Portuguese Empire and the Ottoman Empire to become the dominant power in the region.
He then laid siege to Vienna inbut failed to take the city. In the east, the Ottoman Turks took Baghdad from the Persians ingaining control of Mesopotamia and naval access to the Persian Gulf.
France and the Ottoman Empire, united by mutual opposition to Habsburg rule, became strong allies. After further advances by the Turks inthe Habsburg ruler Ferdinand officially recognized Ottoman ascendancy in Hungary in Inafter the first Ajuuraan-Portuguese war the Ottoman Empire would later absorb the weakened Adal Sultanate into its domain.
This expansion fathered Ottoman rule in Somalia and the Horn of Africa. This also increased its influence in the Indian Ocean to compete with the Portuguese. The success of its political and military establishment has been compared to the Roman Empire, by the likes of Italian scholar Francesco Sansovino and the French political philosopher Jean Bodin.
The effective military and bureaucratic structures of the previous century came under strain during a protracted period of misrule by weak Sultans. The Ottomans gradually fell behind the Europeans in military technology as the innovation that fed the Empire's forceful expansion became stifled by growing religious and intellectual conservatism.
The discovery of new maritime trade routes by Western European states allowed them to avoid the Ottoman trade monopoly. The Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in initiated a series of Ottoman-Portuguese naval wars in the Indian Ocean throughout the 16th century.
Economically, the huge influx of Spanish silver from the New World caused a sharp devaluation of the Ottoman currency and rampant inflation.
The Crimean Khanate continued to invade Eastern Europe in a series of slave raids and remained a significant power in Eastern Europe until the end of the 17th century.
It was a startling, if mostly symbolic,  blow to the image of Ottoman invincibility, an image which the victory of the Knights of Malta against the Ottoman invaders in the Siege of Malta had recently set in motion eroding.
This contributed to problems of indiscipline and outright rebelliousness within the corps, which was never fully solved. During his brief majority reign, Murad IV — reasserted central authority and recaptured Yerevan and Baghdad from the Safavids.
The alliance of the Holy League pressed home the advantage of the defeat at Vienna, culminating in the Treaty of Karlowitz 26 Januarywhich ended the Great Turkish War.
During this period Russian expansion presented a large and growing threat. The Treaty also revealed that the Ottoman Empire was on the defensive and unlikely to present any further aggression in Europe. After this treaty the Ottoman Empire was able to enjoy a generation of peace, as Austria and Russia were forced to deal with the rise of Prussia.
Jealous of their privileges and firmly opposed to change, the Janissary created a revolt.
Selim's efforts cost him his throne and his life, but were resolved in spectacular and bloody fashion by his successor, the dynamic Mahmud IIwho eliminated the Janissary corps in The Serbian revolution — marked the beginning of an era of national awakening in the Balkans during the Eastern Question.
Suzerainty of Serbia as a hereditary monarchy under its own dynasty was acknowledged de jure in A rebellion that originated in Moldavia as a diversion was followed by the main revolution in the Peloponnese, which, along with the northern part of the Gulf of Corinth, became the first parts of the Ottoman empire to achieve independence in By the midth century, the Ottoman Empire was called the "sick man" by Europeans.
The suzerain states — the Principality of Serbia, Wallachia, Moldavia and Montenegro — moved towards de jure independence during the s and s. Decline and modernisation — Main article: Decline of the Ottoman Empire During the Tanzimat period —the government's series of constitutional reforms led to a fairly modern conscripted armybanking system reforms, the decriminalisation of homosexuality, the replacement of religious law with secular law  and guilds with modern factories.
The empire's First Constitutional erawas short-lived. The parliament survived for only two years before the sultan suspended it. The Christian population of the empire, owing to their higher educational levels, started to pull ahead of the Muslim majority, leading to much resentment on the part of the latter.
The financial burden of the war led the Ottoman state to issue foreign loans amounting to 5 million pounds sterling on 4 August As a result, Ottoman holdings in Europe declined sharply; Bulgaria was established as an independent principality inside the Ottoman Empire, Romania achieved full independence.This lecture covers the history of Islam in northern Africa from the time of the first Muslim invasion in to the Ottoman Empire in It is based on the reading from Kevin Shillington's History of Africa (New York: St.
Martin's Press, ), pages , and As you read this. The Ottoman dynasty’s history can be traced from about to the end of the Ottoman Empire in At its greatest extent, the Ottoman Empire covered an enormous territory, including Anatolia, the Balkan region in Europe, most of the Arabic-speaking Middle East, and all of North Africa except.
APWH Ch. 12 Questions. STUDY. PLAY. The rise of the Ottoman Empire blocked direct commercial contact between Europe and China. Which of the following was a feature of the modern era in the centuries after ?
had a greater religious motivation for overseas expansion. The Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire The piracy carried on thereafter by the Barbary pirates of North Africa remained part of the wars against Spain, and the Ottoman expansion was associated with naval dominance for a short period in the Mediterranean.
First Siege of Vienna in The Ottoman Empire of the Oghuz Turks was founded in by Osman I, as one of the successor states to the Seljuk Turkish Empire. The Turkic peoples had originated in Central Asia and some groups. Expansion of Islamic Civilization.
The Ottoman Turks, based after in Istanbul (Constantinople), established a vast empire that lasted from the 14th century until World War I.
Supporters of Sunni Islam and Sufi orders, they were known for both military and architectural achievements. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Mughals ruled.