Literature represents much of the very best of humanity's writings, and it is not by any accident that, after bestsellers and sensationalized books have faded from memory, literature continues to thrive and remain intensely relevant to contemporary human conditions. Literature's stories and texts survive the fires of time. This is why for decades and centuries - long after their authors have gone silent - the writings of Dante, Shakespeare, and Austen, among so many other vital voices, will continue to captivate readers and comment upon life. Literature has innumerable qualities and purposes and can open doors to unique situations and worlds which are never wholly removed from our own.
Retrieved Sep 14 from https: Scott Fitzgerald labeled as the Jazz Age. In the first place, from the historical point of view, "commercialism and standardization that followed industrialism led to increasing nostalgia for the simple, forceful and unmechanized existence that the Negro came to represent" Singh The African American represented, according to Robert Bone, "the unspoiled child of nature, the noble savage--carefree, spontaneous and sexually uninhibited" American writers like Ezra Pound, T.
Eliot, Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway, e. In the second place, European artists such as Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and Henri Matisse found inspiration to revolutionize Western art in African artistic manifestations--sculptures and ritual masks of the city states and kingdoms of West Africa.
Fredrickson explains how romantic racialism did not disappear from the white consciousness in the twentieth century.
In Robert Park, the distinguished sociologist who would come to be recognized as the foremost white student of race relations in the period between the World Wars, set the tone for subsequent "appreciations" of black cultural achievements when he wrote that "the Negro" unquestionably had a temperament which differed from that of whites.
The Anglo-Saxon was basically "a pioneer and a frontiersman," while the Negro was primarily "an artist, loving life for its own sake. His metier is expression rather than action. He is, so to speak, the lady among the races. As Bone manifests, "they created a sympathetic audience for the serious treatment of Negro subjects" An oversimplification of the resiliency and vitality of black character and culture, literary primitivism exalted instinct over intellect, simple forms of social organization over more complex forms, and nature over art.
The play brought the Provincetown Players their first real recognition from Broadway audiences and managers.
It also thrust them into national prominence when it opened on Broadway with special matinees at the Selwyn Theatre on December 27, Its popularity led to a regular run at the Princess Theatre, where it arrived on January 29, The engagement lasted for performances, a spectacularly long run for those days, and then the production began a road tour that was to continue for two years Gelb Besides its avant-garde staging techniques, The Emperor Jones was also notable as the first American play to cast black actors.
Contemporary reviews by white critics attest to the success of the play. In the New York Tribune Heywood Broun wrote that The Emperor Jones "seems to us just about the most interesting play which has yet come from the most promising playwright in America" Gelb The black intelligentsia also hailed the play triumphantly.
The Emperor Jones would remain in history as "a beacon-light of inspiration," since it marked "the breakwater plunge of Negro drama in the main stream of American drama" Gregory Moreover, this "preoccupation, almost obsession" of "this same theme and doubtful formula of hereditary cultural reversion" in The Emperor Jones suggested that, "in spite of all good intentions, the true presental of the real tragedy of Negro life is a task still left for Negro writers to perform" White critics on the history of American drama have tended to deflate the play from its racial representation and instead impute its importance to its universal implications.
At the same time they ignore its racial component and generally prefer to read the play as symbolic of the collective human experience of alienation. In Arthur H.
Quinn cited The Emperor Jones as "a drama of human fear; the emotion of terror is a binding force that fuses the scenes into an unforgettable picture of a human soul fighting against his own evil deeds" In Doris V.
Falk manifested that Brutus Jones emerges as unforgettably himself: The whole situation is so universalized that it would be a mistake to see in The Emperor Jones a reflection of the race problem" Yet, in John H. Gross explains, Locke--as early as commented that blacks in fiction were beginning to acquire the status of "a symbol of social misunderstanding" and would emerge "as the great tragedy of our time, both nationally and internationally" qtd.A close confidant of Langston Hughes, Gertrude Stein, George Gershwin, F.
Scott Fitzgerald, and the Knopfs, Van Vechten frolicked in the s Manhattan demimonde, finding himself in Harlem's jazz clubs, Hell's Kitchen's speakeasies, and Greenwich Village's underground gay scene. Oct 10, · Scott's Langston Hughes Page--abstract summaries of several scholarly articles on Hughes' jazz poetry.
Movies, Modernity, and All that Jazz: Langston Hughes's Montage of a Dream Deferred--scholarly article. Blues in Stereo: The Texts of Langston Hughes in Jazz Music- .
Langston Hughes (–) was an African-American poet, novelist, and playwright. He remains beloved especially for his poetry, and is considered one of America's greatest poets.
During the s, Hughes was one of the leading figures of the Harlem Renaissance, an explosion of Black cultural. F. Scott Fitzgerald was one of the best known American authors of the s and ’30s and is closely associated with the optimism and excesses of that era’s “Jazz Age.” Fitzgerald’s stories often featured people like himself: middle-American types infatuated with the wealth and status of upper-crust society.
tranceformingnlp.com is a platform for academics to share research papers. A ghost in the expressionist jungle of O'Neill's The Emperor Jones. Link/Page Citation but it became paramount in the American consciousness during the s, a period that F.
Scott Fitzgerald labeled as the Jazz Age. (2) The reasons why this was so are manifold.
Langston Hughes reveals the disconnect between O'Neill and black folk when.