Find articles by Mohini P. Barde Find articles by Prajakt J. Barde, Glenmark Pharmaceutical Ltd.

We sometimes want to include in a meta-analysis data from studies where results are presented as medians and ranges or interquartile ranges rather than as means and standard deviations.

In this paper I extend a method of Hozo et al. Inequalities are developed for each observation using upper and lower limits derived from the minimum, the three quartiles, and the maximum.

These are summed to give bounds for the sum and hence the mean of the observations, the average of these bounds in the estimate. A similar estimate is found for the sum of the observations squared and hence for the variance and standard deviation.

For data from a Normal distribution, the extended method using quartiles gives good estimates of sample means but sample standard deviations are overestimated. For data from a Lognormal distribution, both sample mean and standard deviation are overestimated.

Overestimation is worse for larger samples and for highly skewed parent distributions. The extended estimates using quartiles are always superior in both bias and precision to those without.

The estimates have the advantage of being extremely simple to carry out. I argue that as, in practice, such methods will be applied to small samples, the overestimation may not be a serious problem Keywords: Quartile, minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, systematic review.SEM is the standard deviation of mean of random samples drawn from the original population.

Just as the sample SD (s) is an estimate of variability of observations, SEM is an estimate of variability of possible values of means of samples. Standard Deviation (SD) - Psychometric Glossary A measurement of the spread of test scores, with a larger standard deviation indicating that there is a wider dispersion away from the average.

The purpose of standard deviation in psychometric testing is to offer an indication of the precision of the tests, with a low standard deviation being ideal. Loliwa / Normality & Standard Deviation Applicability / 3 Thus normal distribution, also known as, “Gaussian distribution” is, “the most common distribution function for .

Standard Deviation Abstract 2 which in turn heightens the level of difficulty and vice versa.

Smaller sample sizes have simplified processes that allows for the solutions of these problems to be found without a calculator as opposed to its counterparts.

AUSTRIAN JOURNAL OF STATISTICS Volume 38 (), Number 3, – Properties of the Standard Deviation that are Rarely Mentioned in Classrooms Mohammad Fraiwan Al-Saleh1 and Adil Eltayeb Yousif2 1 Department of Mathematics, University of Sharjah, UAE 2 Department of Mathematics and Physics, Qatar University, Qatar Abstract: Unlike the mean, the standard deviation ¾ is a .

Bad Abstract “The main objective of this lab was to determine an unknown chloride ion concentration by the process of titration with a known concentration of silver.

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Standard Deviation Abstract