What awaited survivors after liberation or after they fled the country?
Can Genocide be seen as a historical human practice? The question of genocide is a problem to contemporary historians, for it is hard to suggest whether genocide, under the terms of the U. Convention, was a part of history before the early episodes of the Twentieth Century.
This is the problem that will be discussed and answered within this essay by comparing and contrasting events and discussing the reasoning for genocide. The terms of the U.
N Convention on Genocide state that: Whether myth or not, Homer was writing the Iliad in about the ninth century BCE, and the quote from Agamemnon shows at least the basics of Genocide were in human thought at least twenty nine centuries before the events of the twentieth century.
This is a good starting point for this discussion of the history of genocide as it is an example of pre-modern thinking toward the intentional destruction of a particular group of people.
This proves that genocide, in all but name, has constituted a part of warfare and human settlement for thousands of years. Yet the extent to which this type of persecution has changed is to be discussed, as the methods and reasoning for genocide have changed with time.
Many of the genocides of the twentieth century were based on the idea of race and ethnicity, and the reasoning for genocide earlier in history needs to be discussed to discover whether there has been a significant Comparing two instances of genocide in terms of genocidal thought. In antiquity there are various events that could be looked at in this discussion, but the Athenian massacre of Melos during the Peloponnesian war and the campaigns of Caesar in Gaul are by far the best examples of what can be deemed genocide.
The Dorian heritage of the island despite its neutrality brought it into the Spartan hegemony and away from the Ionian Athenians, resulting in a repelled Athenian attack during BCE.
The Athenian invasion and slaughter of Melos in BCE is described by Thucydides in his history of the Peloponnesian War and is perhaps the earliest documented genocidal event.
The policy to conquer a city state sympathetic of the Peloponnesian league and to then destroy its population is an example of genocide towards a national group, and to a lesser extent an ethnic group the Dorian peoples.
Although nowhere near the scale of genocides of the modern period, the destruction of Melos is undoubtedly an example of genocide in the classical period and an example of ethnically motivated persecution. Another key example of the idea of genocide being ingrained in human history is in the campaigns of Julius Caesar in Gaul during the middle of the first century BCE.
Plutarch claims that in his subjugation of Gaul, Caesar killed one million Gallic inhabitants and enslaved another million. Of course, the difficulty with ancient contemporary sources is that generally numbers tend to be exaggerated, and it is highly unlikely that the figure of one million is an accurate one.
Plutarch was also writing over one hundred years after the event took place, and a main source of his information would have been Julius Caesars own work on the Gallic wars.
Both the problem of Plutarch relying on Caesars own word and no first hand evidence is that figures and facts can be altered to enhance the glory of Caesar. Despite this though, it is unquestionable that the campaigns in Gaul led to high numbers of genocidal acts such as the slaughter of the population of Avaricum.
The Gallic campaigns were set off by the migration of the Helvetii people into Roman lands, and the showdown between Caesar and the Helvetii, if his own reports are to be deemed true, is an example of the genocidal brutality of the campaigns. There is a key question that must be posed on the other hand as to whether the acts of the Gallic wars were genocidal: The answer to this question is a tricky one, for the destruction of the Gallic peoples as a whole, was not the focus behind the killing generally, for it was the intention to pacify the peoples and bring them under Roman control that brought about the persecution.
Even this reasoning is no basis to deny genocide, for the destruction of the Helvetii and the sacking of Avaricum are obvious examples of an intentional policy to destroy those groups of people. It is therefore accurate to view these acts as a form of ancient genocide.
With the examples of Melos and Gaul, it is hard therefore to deny the existence of genocide in the classical era, and therefore weight is given to the idea of genocide being a long standing human condition.
A key aspect of this type of persecution in this period is the relationship with war, and the settling or replacement of populations through mass slaughter and destruction of national identity and members of certain ethnic groups.
This differs slightly from the modern version of genocide, yet there are key similarities in the idea of ethnic origin and national identity as basis for persecution. The theme of genocide through war is a key aspect of these early types of genocide, and it is not the last time that this idea is seen in history.
Those who had survived slaughter at the hands of the Spanish were enslaved and males were worked to death in gold mines whilst women became agricultural labourers. Either figure leaves no question as to the devastation caused by the Spanish attack, for this was only the starting point for more to come against the Central American peoples, and further attacks by Spaniards such as Pedro de Alvarado continue the theme of genocide towards the native populations.
The fact that the natives were viewed as heathen is perhaps the main reason for the brutal treatment of the Spanish towards them, and the harsh conditions placed upon those unlucky enough to have been taken into slavery bear witness to the inferior position given to them.
There is no doubting the fact that the conquest of Central and South America led to genocide of before unseen numbers of people due to their religious and cultural differences to the Conquistadors. To move north into North America and the settling by white Europeans leads to a similar death rate among the North American populace.There will be 3 group presentations comparing the Armenian genocide of with the cases of genocide during the Yugoslav Wars of and the Rwandan genocide of You have to answer two questions: a) What differences and what similarities can you detect between your two .
The Crime of All Crimes: Toward a Criminology of Genocide - Kindle edition by Nicole Rafter. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading The Crime of All Crimes: Toward a Criminology of tranceformingnlp.com: Nicole Rafter.
May 03, · Even the very definition of genocide is contested, but generally speaking, it refers to the intentional destruction of a particular race, ethnicity, religious group, or nationality.
Genocides have occurred (and continue to occur) in every corner of the globe, in societies ancient and modern, for. This is another propaganda article that has the story completely turned around, it’s Un, who threatens genocide and has committed it against his own people with “internment” camps.
instances of ethnic cleansing, fr om the Armenian genocide to the Holocaust and the Rwandan massacres, have their roots in deepening or failed democratization processes or, rather, in the. Fein uses selected case studies and extensive statistical data comparing instances of state- supported terror, enslavement, and genocide in developing an explanation of why some states have violated basic human rights in the years since the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights in