Odyssey Marine stated on 21 May that most of the recovered coins and treasure are believed to be from a particular shipwreck, but it was likely that artifacts from other wrecks had also been mixed in and were recovered. Odyssey said that due to the location of the ship in an area known to contain a large number of colonial-era wrecks, the identity of the ship would not be disclosed pending further examination of the coins and artifacts. That ship sank in heavy weather when its pumps failed to keep up with the water leaking through the hull planks.
As articulated by the Supreme Court, under the Lemon test, a government-sponsored message violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment if: LemonU.
As the Lemon test is disjunctive, either an improper purpose or an improper effect renders the ID Policy invalid under the Establishment Clause. Purpose Inquiry Initially, we note that the central inquiry is whether the District has shown favoritism toward religion generally or any set of religious beliefs in particular: A governmental intention to promote religion is clear when the State enacts a law to serve a religious purpose.
We will begin the Lemon purpose inquiry by providing a detailed chronology of the events that transpired in Dover leading up to the enactment of Case conclusion ID Policy at issue.
We will initially supply background information on the composition of the Board, which consists of nine seats. Wenrich and Cleaver resigned on October 4,Casey and Jeff Brown resigned on October 18,and Yingling resigned verbally in November and in writing February Although Bonsell claims he cannot recall raising such subjects but does not dispute that he did, in fact, raise them, the overwhelming evidence indicates that he raised the issues of creationism and school prayer during the January Board retreat.
For the second, consecutive time, Bonsell does not dispute that he raised the issue but his testimony indicates that he cannot recall doing so, despite the fact that Jeff Brown, Barrie Callahan, Bertha Spahr, and Assistant Superintendent Baksa testified otherwise.
Nilsen on April 1, This memo reports that Peterman learned from Spahr that Baksa said on March 31,that an unidentified Board member "wanted fifty percent of the topic of evolution to involve the teaching of Creationism.
Although defense witnesses testified that Peterman was known to exaggerate situations, the weight of the evidence reveals that the essential content of the memo was indeed accurate. Additionally, Spahr confirmed that she had a conversation with Baksa, as reported in Case conclusion Peterman memo, and that Baksa told her Bonsell wanted to have creationism share equal time with evolution in the curriculum.
Although Baksa claims he does not recall Bonsell identifying "creationism" as the subject with which he wanted to share equal time with evolution, nor that Bonsell mentioned "creationism" at any time up until April 1,we do not find his testimony on this point to be credible.
Apart from two consecutive Board retreats, Bonsell raised the issue of creationism on numerous other occasions Case conclusion well. When he ran for the Board inBonsell told Jeff Brown he did not believe in evolution, that he wanted creationism taught side-by-side with evolution in biology class, and that taking prayer and Bible reading out of school was a mistake which he wanted reinstated in the Dover public schools.
Subsequently, Bonsell told Jeff Brown he wanted to be on the Board Curriculum Committee because he had concerns about teaching evolution and he wanted to see some changes in that area. Simply put, Bonsell repeatedly failed to testify in a truthful manner about this and other subjects.
Finally, Bonsell not only wanted prayer in schools and creationism taught in science class, he also wanted to inject religion into the social studies curriculum, as evidenced by his statement to Baksa that he wanted students to learn more about the Founding Fathers and providing Baksa with a book entitled Myth of Separation by David Barton.
Fall — Bonsell Confronted Teachers About Evolution Shortly after Baksa took a position with the DASD in the fall ofhe and Bonsell, then Chair of the Board Curriculum Committee, had discussions in which Bonsell expressed concern about the teaching of evolution, the presentation of Darwin in a biology textbook used at Dover, and felt that Darwin was presented as a fact, not a theory.
Baksa then arranged for a meeting between Bonsell and science teachers in the fall of in which Jennifer Miller, the senior biology teacher, acted as spokesperson for the teachers. Miller testified that Bonsell was specifically concerned that the teachers conveyed information to students in opposition to what parents presented at home leaving students with the impression that "somebody is lying.
Miller explained that evolution is taught as change over time with emphasis upon origin of species, not origin of life.
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Bonsell left the meeting with the understanding that the "origins of life" is not taught, which pleased him because the concept of common ancestry offends his personal religious belief that God created man and other species in the forms they now exist and that the earth is only thousands of years old.
Prior to the fall ofno Dover administrator or Board member had ever met with the biology teachers and questioned them as to how they taught evolution, or any other aspect of biology.
The result of the unprecedented fall meeting was that it had an impact upon how biology teachers subsequently taught evolution in Dover.
First, before the meeting with Bonsell, biology teacher Robert Linker had a practice of explaining that creationism was based on "Bibles, religion, [and] Biblical writings," noting that it was illegal to discuss creation in public school. After the meeting, however, Linker changed his prior practice by ceasing any mention of creationism at the beginning of the evolution section, as did he stop using helpful Discovery Channel evolution videos as teaching aides.
Linker testified that he changed his practices in the classroom because the unusual meeting with Bonsell alerted him to a controversy surrounding how he taught evolution. Linker additionally testified that Jen Miller, a senior biology teacher, changed her practice of having the students create an evolution time-line in the hallway, which addressed how various species developed over millions of years.
Therefore, although Defendants have asserted that the ID Policy has the secular purposes of promoting critical thinking and improving science education, the opposite of such purposes occurred in fact as biology teachers had already began to omit teaching material regarding the theory of evolution in the months preceding the adoption of the ID Policy.
Late in the school year, Baksa arranged for the science teachers to watch a video from the Discovery Institute entitled "Icons of Evolution" and at a subsequent point, two lawyers from the Discovery Institute made a legal presentation to the Board in executive session. June Board Meetings — Buckingham and Other Board Members Spoke in Favor of Teaching Creationism Plaintiffs introduced evidence that at public school board meetings held on June 7, and June 14,members of the Board spoke openly in favor of teaching creationism and disparaged the theory of evolution on religious grounds.
We are in agreement with Plaintiffs that with the exception of Buckingham, the testimony of these witnesses was both credible and convincing, as will be discussed below. We will now provide our findings regarding the June 7, Board meeting.
First, the approval of several science textbooks appeared on the agenda for the meeting, but not approval for the biology textbook. After Barrie Callahan asked whether the Board would approve the purchase of the edition of the textbook entitled Biology, Buckingham told Callahan that the book was "laced with Darwinism" and spoke in favor of purchasing a textbook that included a balance of creationism and evolution.
With surprising candor considering his otherwise largely inconsistent and non-credible testimony, Buckingham did admit that he made this statement. Second, Buckingham said that the Board Curriculum Committee would look for a book that presented a balance between creationism and evolution.News.
November 19, Beck Redden Recognized by U.S. News on “Best Law Firms” List; November 14, Partner Matthew Whitley in The Texas Lawbook. The Black Swan Project is the project name given by Odyssey Marine Exploration for its discovery and recovery of an estimated US$ million (£ million) worth of silver and gold coins from the ocean floor.
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Get help with all aspects of your assignment, from research to writing. Jun 04, · On Monday, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the much-followed “cakeshop” case, siding with the bakery that refused to make a wedding cake for a same-sex couple in JUDGMENT OF THE COURT (Grand Chamber) 6 October ()(Reference for a preliminary ruling — Personal data — Protection of individuals with regard to the processing of such data — Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union — Articles 7, 8 and 47 — Directive 95/46/EC — Articles 25 and 28 — Transfer of .